Friday, March 27, 2020

How to Win in Monopoly an Example by

How to Win in Monopoly The complexity of the economy of the real world makes even the most expert economist scratch their heads. That is just one reason why the board game Monopoly is such a popular game among any age group. As the title of the game suggests, it also feeds one of the darkest of human intentions, which is to monopolize everything. In the context the game, there is nothing more satisfying than seeing your playmates cling unto their last dollar and worship you for your economic dominance-the sad part is it is only a game. But the question that should be asked is: how does a player get the majority of the property cards and have large amounts of cash that even the baker would envy? Need essay sample on "How to Win in Monopoly" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed The first step would be familiarizing oneself to the rules of the game. Monopoly is a brutal and an unforgiving board game. Those who are already familiar with the game are like sharks that can smell blood. They can sense whether a player is just a novice. And if a player had joined the game without being familiar with the rules-that player must prepare oneself to be a board-game context. Read the rulebook first and know the nature of the game, from there you could strategize. University Students Frequently Tell EssayLab support:Who wants to write essay for me?Specialists recommend: If You Think About Someone To Write Your Paper - Essaylab The Right Place!Help Write Essay Services Get Paid To Write Papers How to Make Assignment College Essay Writing Service It would be very helpful if a player would not get upset in the entire course of the game. The player should remember that Monopoly is a game that is based on luck-perhaps the two size-sided dice and the "chance cards" would remind us of that fact. Do not get frustrated if you do not land on Park Lane even if you wished it on a falling star. No one can tell the roll of the dice unless a player is a mutant or something. Moreover, being frustrated would only distract you from your strategy. And of course, approaching the game with a little dose of intellect would not hurt. It would always pay to smart in any game, even in life. You really tell whether a person have difficulty in handling money when he or she is always going bankrupt in Monopoly. A proven effective way of playing smart Monopoly is spending the money wisely. Smarting spending in Monopoly would mean constant purchasing of available properties. Again, do not wait until you land on expensive properties such as Park Lane. I would reiterate that Monopoly is a game of luck, the company that had published the game even states that in the manual. There would be two main reasons why a player should buy properties when they have the chance. First is that purchasing one could lead a player to purchasing all the properties of the same color. Your opponents would kneel down to you if you have purchased all of the same color group as you can charge them double rent. Second is that it simply prevents the other players from having the chance to charge you with double rent-simple. May I just add that the money in Monopoly is not real after all. Do not be afraid to spend fake money, but still spend it wisely or else you would be subject to oppression from other players, but only during the duration of the game. To boost your chances of winning the game, you could learn probabilities-but the technical stuff strips the game of the fun. It is already a logically-winning-inclined situation if a player would play the game wisely. So if you would soon play Monopoly, you must remember to know the rules, know the nature of the game, and be wise, do not talk to the dice, just monopolize. Reference Monopoly. Retrieved 13 May 2008 games/monopoly/default.cfm?page=StrategyGuide/Rules/rules_payingrent

Friday, March 6, 2020

Chem 17 Reviewer (1st Exam) Essays

Chem 17 Reviewer (1st Exam) Essays Chem 17 Reviewer (1st Exam) Essay Chem 17 Reviewer (1st Exam) Essay CHEMISTRY 17 1ST LONG EXAM REVIEWER I. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS -arrangement of atoms’ electrons -the number of electrons in an atom -distribution of electrons around the nucleus and their energies ATOMS *Billiard Ball Model (JOHN DALTON) *Plum Pudding Model (JOSEPH J. THOMPSON) *RUTHERFORD’s Model of Atom -atoms are tiny, hard, indivisible spheres -electrons (negative charge) occupy the atom Atom is mostly empty space with a dense nucleus PROBLEMS with Rutherford’s Model According to laws of physics, Rutherford’s atom should collapse *The model CANNOT explain differences in properties of elements *The model CANNOT explain the colors emitted by elements when heated A. THE QUANTUM MODELS (WAVE) -formed through studies about light DESCRIBING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE *Wavelength (? †lambda†) -distance between two adjacent peaks or troughs (m) *Frequency (? †nu†) number of cycles(complete wavelengths) that pass a given point each sec ond (Hz or /s) **Wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency. Where: c= 3. 00 x 10? m/s B. QUANTIZED ENERGY AND PHOTONS Blackbody Radiation oPerfect absorber and emitter of light oAt high temperature, solids emit radiation oRadiation depends on the temperature not in the element the solid is made from. oPREDICTION: â€Å"As temperature increases, the frequency of light emitted also increases. † oOBSERVATION: There was a peak. Photoelectric Effect and Photons oWhen a beam of light shines on a certain surface (e. g. some metals), electrons are ejected. oThe effect is instantaneous. PREDICTION: †It will take time for effect to be observed†; â€Å"and light will produce the effect, given enough time† oOBSERVATION: Effect is instantaneous. There is a minimum frequency of light needed to produce the effect. o**†If frequency of light is below a certain value called the threshold frequency, the number of electrons will be ejected. † o**†If i ntensity of light is increased, flow of current also increases. † QUANTUM THEORY (Max Planck *1858-1947*) oQuantum (fixed amount) – smallest quality oEach particle corresponds to certain energy. Planck proposed that the minimum amount of radiant energy that can gain or lose is related to the frequency of radiation. o†Radiation consists of packets/quantum of energy (PHOTONS *name given by G. N. Lewis*). † oQuantum Theory: â€Å"Energy is quantized. It can only have certain allowed values. † oEnergy of radiation is proportional to the frequency of radiation. Higher frequency ? More energy; Lower wavelength ? More energy oMonochromatic light consists of photons with the same frequency or same energy. oIntensity of the light depends on the number of photons emitted per second. Einstein’s Explanation on the Photoelectric Effect Light consisting of energy packets hit the metal and their energy is absorbed by the electrons. oOne packet of energy (phot on) hits the metal surface, one electron is emitted. oIf energy of a bundle is not enough, it will not be able to dislodge electron from the attraction of the atomic nuclei. No photoelectric effect. oIf energy of a bundle is enough (equal to the threshold energy). It will dislodge an electron from the attraction of the atomic nuclei. oEnergy in excess of energy to dislodge electron (in excess of the threshold energy) becomes kinetic energy of the electron. Higher energy/ frequency of light ? more excess energy ? Higher kinetic energy of electron C. LINE SPECTRA AND THE BOHR MODEL Line Spectra oMonochromatic radiation is composed of single wavelength. oSpectrum is produced when radiation from light is separated into different wavelength components. oContinuous spectrum ?ROYGBIV, containing light of all wavelength oLine spectrum ?Spectrum containing radiation of only specific wavelengths Bohr’s Model (Spectra of Hydrogen Atom) oAssumed that electron move in circular orbits arou nd the nucleus oPOSTULATES: Only orbits of certain radii, corresponding to certain definite energies, are permitted for the electron in a hydrogen atom. ?An electron in a permitted orbit has a specific energy and is in an allowed energy state. An electron in an allowed energy state will not spiral into the nucleus. ?Energy is transmitted or absorbed by the electron only as the electron changes from one allowed energy state to another. This energy is emitted or absorbed as a photon, E= h?. For electron to move farther from the nucleus, it needs more potential energy. oDistance from the nucleus of an allowed orbit, n. Energy of the electron in the allowed orbit, n. oApplications ?Fireworks ?Use of emission spectroscopy to analyse for the presence of elements. Success of Bohr Model oIt successfully predicted the frequencies of the lines in the hydrogen spectrum oIt introduced the concept of discrete energy levels of electron in atoms and the first quantum number, n. oThe model failed to predict energy levels for atoms with more than 1 electron. (if 2/more electrons are present, the electrons repel) D. THE WAVE BEHAVIOR OF MATTER Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) â€Å"Depending on the experimental circumstances, radiation appears to have either a wavelike or a particle-like (photon) character. † o**As the electron moves about the nucleus, it is associated with a particular wavelength. The characteristic wavelength of the electron, or of any particle, depends on its mass, m, and moving at speed, v. oThe quantity mv for any object is its momentum. oMatter waves, wave characteristic of material particles. oThis hypothesis is found to be applicable to all matter; any object of mass and velocity would give rise to a characteristic matter wave. Uncertainty Principle -There is an inherent uncertainty in the precision with which we can simultaneously specify the position and momentum of a particle. This uncertainty is significant only for particles of extremely small mass, such as electrons. oWerner Heisenberg (1901-1976) ?â€Å"The dual nature of matter places a fundamental limitation on how precisely we can know both the location and the momentum of any object. The limitation becomes important only when we deal with matter at the subatomic level (that is with masses as small as that of an electron). † E. QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ATOMIC ORBITALS Erwin Schr? dinger (1887-1961) oQuantum physics opened a new treatment of atoms, electrons, ions and molecules: by describing it mathematically oUsed Broglie’s hypothesis that electrons can be described as a wave. oSolutions to the equation are called wave functions (energy state of an atom). ?WAVE FUNCTIONS: ?Only certain wave functions are allowed. An electron can only have certain energy states: the energy of the electron is quantized. ?They are called orbitals. ?Its square (? ) is called either probability density or the electron density. Mathematical description of a region in space where an electron has some probability of being found. ?Each wave function (or each energy state/orbital) is characterized by a set of 3 quantum numbers: n, l, ml oSchr? dinger’s theory chose to define the energy of the electron precisely. Therefore, according to the uncertainty principle, this would result in a large uncertainty finding the locatio n of the electron. oWhen the Schr? dinger’s equation for the H-atom is solved, the resulting wave functions contain 3 integral numbers called quantum numbers. Orbitals and Quantum Numbers oWhat for? ?Solutions to wave equations given ?Energy of electron ?Probable location of electron ?Identify an orbital oTo identify an orbital, we use THREE quantum numbers. oTo describe an electron, we use FOUR quantum numbers. Principal Quantum Number (n) a. n defines a main energy level or a principal shell b. the size of orbital and energy of orbital depends mainly on n c. As n increases, there will be higher energy of electrons and the farther is the distance of the electron from the nucleus. Azimuthal Quantum Number (l) a. Each value of l defines a type of sublevel or subshell, or an orbital type. b. Thus, we speak of op sublevel/ p orbitals od sublevel/ d orbitals c. Allowed values: positive integer values (from O ? (n-1)) d. Orbitals and sublevels are designated by letters. e. Determines the shape of the orbital. Value of l012345 Letter designatedspdfgh Magnetic Quantum Number (ml) a. Describe the 3D orientation of the orbital b. Gives the number of orbitals in a given substance c. Orbitals in some sublevel have same energy but differ in orientation in space called degenerate orbitals. . Value depends on l. e. Allowed values from –l to +l. Spin Quantum Number (ms) a. Pauli Exclusion Principle oNo 2 electrons in the same atom can have exactly same energy. b. Energies of orbital for H-atom. oFor 1 electron H-atom, orbitals on the same energy level have same energy. They are degenerate. oEnergy of the orbitals of H-atom depends only on the principal quantum number, n. oEnergies of Orbitals As num ber of electron increase, so do the repulsion interactions among them. oSubshells in a Principal Shell have different energies: s

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Exposed Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Exposed - Essay Example When they were not ready to co-operate with me, I complained to my supervisor, and the same is not against anyone, but against the misconduct of the whole group. In addition, I would seek help from the supervisor to resolve the conflict and I will be ready to co-operate with my co-workers. On the other side, I would advise Jane that one must not use email to discuss sensitive or private information with co-workers/ supervisors. One can see that Harold Grimes dealt with Jane’s grievance/complaint in a professional manner. But Alisha Jones circulated files including the company’s rules, added with Jane’s email. To be specific, Alisha Jones tried to convince the workers that one of them faces stress and alienation in his/her workplace. So, she forwarded the email as a proof. This increased the scope of further tension among the employees. So, I would advise Jane that email is not a safe mode of communication to discuss sensitive or private information with co-workers or supervisors. On the other side, she can directly contact Harold Grimes because his duty is to supervise the workers and to resolve the conflicts among them. First of all, I feel extremely sorry to say that I was forced to complain to our supervisor, on your rude behavior. You people were aware of the fact that I am a new member to our existing work team. I am not complaining, but pointing out some facts on workplace harassment/alienation face by me. You people had been together for a long time and it is your duty to amalgamate a new member to the core of the group. As far as I am concerned, I was so excited to work with an existing work team. But you people did not try to help me by sharing your own language and code of conduct with me. You people know that I tried my level best to co-operate, but for no use. For instance, you people used to share private

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

HND Organisation Behaviour Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

HND Organisation Behaviour - Assignment Example He added that since needs are many; they are arranged in order of importance i.e. from basic to a complex one. A person advances to the next level of needs after the lower level of need has been satisfied and he progresses up the hierarchy. This motivation theory lists the human needs from the lowest to highest as physiological, safety and security, love, self-esteem, and self-actualization. In Maslow's theory, the lowest level is physiological needs and money happens to be one of the physiological needs. According to Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation, money as a Physiological need in Maslow's theory is a motivator, though it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period. Maslow demonstrated that at the higher level of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are more powerful motivators than money. McGregor places money in his theory X and Y places money in theory X category and he feels it not a good motivator of work. He places praise and recognition in theory Y category and he feels that they are strong motivators than money. Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, and Gupta, 2004) There is a number of leadership styles namely: Authoritarian, democratic and free reign. For effective management, a good leader should use all three leadership styles. Authoritarian leadership style is used when the leader does not want any contribution from his fellow employees because of the limited time, have all the instructions to solve a problem and the employees are well motivated. Democratic leadership style is used when the leader involves the other employees in decision making but he is usually the one who makes the final decision. This style is applicable if a leader has time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from their employees. Free reign leadership style is used when the leader has trust and confidence with the people below him and for this case he allows them to make decisions and delegate tasks. The employees are supposed to analyze the situation and determines what is to be done and how is to be done. The leader sets priorities and he is responsible for the decisions that are made. There is no one best leadership style but the three should be employed for the effective management of an organization. (Kouzes and Posner, 2002)

Monday, January 27, 2020

A leader must have followers

A leader must have followers It is a relationship through which one person influences the behavior or actions of other people. A leader must have followers. Leaders create a vision and then communicate the vision to his followers. Leader energies, inspire and motivate others to translate the vision into achievement. A good leader must have qualities, personality, characteristics or traits. Leadership traits include personal magnetism or charisma (gift from GOD), interpersonal skills, analytical thinking, imagination, decisiveness, trustworthiness, persuasiveness, self motivation, flexibility and vision. There are some styles of leadership: Autocratic: The manager makes all the decisions and issues instructions which must be obeyed without question. Advantages: Quick decisions can be made when speed is required It is most efficient type of leadership for highly programmed, routine work Disadvantages: Communication between the manager and subordinate will be one way. There may be lack of helpful feedback It does not encourage contribution or initiative from subordinates Persuasive: The manger still makes all the decisions, but explains them to subordinates, and attempts to motivate subordinates to carry them out willingly. Advantages: Selling decisions to staff might make them more willing Staff will have a better idea of what to do when unforeseen events arise in their work, because the manager will have explained his intensions. Disadvantages: Subordinates will not necessarily be committed to decisions in which they have not been involved There is no contribution or feedback of subordinates Democratic: Leader and followers make the decision together, on the basis of consensus, or compromise and agreement. Advantages: It can provide high commitment to the decision reached It takes advantage of the knowledge and expertise of individuals in different areas, for high quality, flexible decision making Disadvantages: The authority of the manager might be undermined Decision making might become a very long process Clear cut decisions might be difficult to reach Participative: The manager confers with subordinates and takes their views and feelings into account, but retains the right to make the final decision. Advantages: Employees are involved in decisions. This encourages motivation through greater interest and involvement. Employees can contribute knowledge and experience, to help in solving problems related to their work. Disadvantages: it might take longer to reach decisions subordinates might be limited in their viewpoint on organizational issues if the manager does not take employees advice, they might perceive the process to be meaningless P7: explain the different motivational theories and their application within the workplace Motivation: Motivation is the driving force which causes us to achieve goals. Motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. F.W. Taylor: Taylor made the first serious attempt to analyze worker motivation in order to advise management on the best ways to increase worker performance or productivity. The techniques he used of establishing an idea or an hypothesis, studying and recording performance at work, altering working methods and re-recording performance are still used in modern industry. This approach has become known as scientific management due to the detailed recording and analysis of results that it involved. His main aim was to reduce the level of inefficiency that existed in the US manufacturing industry. The scope for efficiency gains in early twentieth century manufacturing plants was huge. The vast mass of workers were untrained and non-specialized. They were poorly led by supervisors and managers with little or no formal training in dealing with people. There was usually no formal selection or appraisal system of staff and many were recruited on a daily or weekly basis with no security of employment. How to improve productivity (Taylors scientific approach): Select workers to perform a task. Observe them performing the task and note the key elements of it. Record the time taken to do each part of the task. Identify the quickest method recorded. Train all workers in this quickest method and do not allow them to make any changes in it. Supervise workers to ensure that this best way is being carried out and to time them to check that the set time is not being exceeded. Pay workers on the basis of results (based on the theory of economic man) The theory of economic man was widely held, and Taylor himself supported this notion. The view was that man was driven or motivated by money alone and the only factor that could stimulate further effort was the chance of earning extra money. He always maintained that workers should be paid a fair days pay for a fair days work and that the amount should be directly linked up to output through a system known as piece rate. This means paying workers a certain amount for each unit produced. To encourage high output a low rate per unit can be set for the first units produced and then higher rates become payable if output targets are exceeded. Elton Mayo: Elton Mayo is best known for his Hawthorne Effect conclusions. These were based on a series of experiments he and his team conducted over a five year period at the Hawthorne factory of Western Electric Co. in Chicago. His work was initially based on the assumption that working conditions (lightning, heating, rest periods and so on) had a scientific effect on workers productivity. Experiments were undertaken to establish the optimum working conditions at all. The results surprised all observers, as lightning and all other conditions were changed, both improved and worsened, so productivity rose in all groups including the control group. This forced Mayo to accept that: Working conditions in themselves were not that important in determining productivity levels Other motivational factors needed to be investigated further before conclusions could be drawn. Subsequent experiments were carried out with a group of assembly line workers. Changes to rest periods, payment systems, assembly bench layout and canteen food were made at twelve week intervals. Crucially, before every major change, the researchers discussed the new changes with the work group. At the end of the experiments the working conditions and work hours were returned to how they had been before the start of the trial. Output rose far above the original level. Maslow hierarchy theory: Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943. Then in 1954 this theory was fully expressed in his book Motivation and Personality. Maslows hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid, with the largest and most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom, and the need for self-actualization at the top. The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called deficiency needs or d-needs: esteem , friendship and love, security, and physical needs. With the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) needs, if these deficiency needs are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tense. Maslows theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslows hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom: This hierarchy was interpreted by Maslow as follows: individuals needs start on the lowest level once one level of need has been satisfied, humans will strive to achieve the next level self-actualization or self-fulfillment is not reached by many people but everyone is capable of reaching their potential once a need has been satisfied it will no longer motivate individuals to action, thus when material needs have been satisfied the offer of more money will not increase productivity Herzberg and the Two factor theory: Despite basing his research on just 200 professionally qualified workers, Herzbergs conclusions and famous two factor theory have had the greatest impact on motivational practices since Taylors work almost 60 years earliest. His research was based around questionnaires and interviews with employees with the intension of discovering: those factors that led to them having very good feelings about their jobs and those factors that led to them having very negative feelings about their jobs. His conclusions were that: Job satisfaction resulted from five main factors: achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. He called these factors the motivators. He considered the last three to be the most significant. Job dissatisfaction resulted from five different factors: company policy and administration, supervision, salary, relationships with others and working conditions. He termed these hygiene factors. These were the factors that surround the job itself (extrinsic factors) rather than the work itself (intrinsic factors). Herzberg considered that the hygiene factors had to be addressed by management to prevent dissatisfaction, but even if they were in place they would not, by themselves, create a well-motivated workforce. Vrooms theory: Vrooms theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. The key elements to this theory are referred to as Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence. The Expectancy Theory of Victor Vroom deals with motivation and management. Vrooms theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Vroom suggested that the relationship between peoples behavior at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists. Vroom realized that an employees performance is based on individuals factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. The expectancy theory says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that: There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance, Favorable performance will result in a desirable reward, The reward will satisfy an important need, The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile. P8: Assess the relationship between motivation theory and the practice of management. Payment or financial reward system: Hourly wage rate: This is the most common way of paying manual, clerical and non-management workers. An hourly time rate is set for the job perhaps by comparing with other firms or similar jobs and the wage level is determined by multiplying this by the number of hours worked. This total is usually paid weekly. Piece rate: A rate is fixed for the production of each unit, and the workers wages therefore depend on the quantity of output produced. The piece rate can be adjusted to reflect the difficulty of the job and the standard time needed to complete it. These issues are determined by work study. The level of the rate can be very important. If set too low it could demotivate the workers but if too high it could reduce the incentives, because workers will be able to meet their target wage level by producing relatively few units. Salary: This is an annual sum that is usually paid on a monthly basis. It is the most common form of payment for professional, supervisory and management staff. The salary level is fixed each year and it is not dependent on the number of hours worked (time rate) or the number of units produced (piece rate). The fixing of the salary level for each job is a very important process because it helps to determine the status of that post in the whole organization. Job evaluation techniques may be used to assist in deciding the salary bands and the differences between them. In most organizations, all jobs will be put into one of a number of salary bands and the precise income earned within each band will depend upon experience and progress. It is always possible to gain promotion to another job in a higher salary band. Firms that are interested in creating a single status within their organization are now increasingly putting all staff manual and managerial on to annual salaries to give the benefi ts of security and status to all employees. Example of salary bands: Job grade Salary band (per year) Regional heads Rs.100000 Rs.200000 Departmental heads Rs.50000 Rs.75000 Office managers Rs.30000 Rs.40000 Secretaries Rs.15000 Rs.25000 Junior clerical staff Rs.5000 Rs.10000

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Consumer Decision Making Process Essay

The consumer purchase decision process is generally viewed as consisting of sequential steps or stages through which the buyer passes in purchasing a product or service. The various steps in this process, as well as the relevant internal psychological processes, those occur at each stage such as motivation, perception, attitude formation, integration and learning. 1. Problem recognition—is the first step in the consumer decision-making process. This is caused by a difference between the consumer’s ideal state and actual state. There are various causes of sources of problem recognition. These include: a. Out of stock b. Dissatisfaction c. New needs / wants d. Related products/ purchases e. Marketer induced problem recognition f. New products Look more:  the consumer buying process begins when essay 2. Information Search—being the second step in the consumer decision making process, involves a scan of information stored in memory to recall past experiences or knowledge regarding purchase alternatives. External search involves go to outside sources to acquire information such as personal sources, marketer controlled sources, public sources, or through personal experiences such as examining or handling a product. 3. Alternative Evaluation— At, this stage the consumer compares the various brands and services, he or she has identified as being capable of solving the consumption problem and satisfying the needs or motives that initiated the decision process. The evoked set is a subset of all the brands of which the consumer is aware and actively considering in the decision process. A goal of marketers is to ensure that their brands are included in the evoked set of consumers. 4. Purchase Decision—as an outcome of the alternative evaluation stage the consumer may develop a purchase intention or predisposition to buy a certain brand. Once this intention has been made and an intention formed, then the consumer implements it and makes the actual purchase. Many purchase decisions are made on the basis of brand loyalty which is a preference for a particular brand that results in its repeated purchase. Many purchase decisions for non-durable, low involvement items take place in the store and decision and purchase occur almost simultaneously. For these types of decisions top-of-mind awareness of a brand is important as is the influence of packing, shelf displays, point-of-purchase materials, and various sales promotion tools. 5. Post-purchase Evaluation—the consumer decision process does not end once the product or service has been purchased. After using a product or service the consumer compares the level of performance with expectations. Satisfaction occurs when the consumer’s expectations are either met or exceeded, while dissatisfaction results when performance is below expectations. Another possible outcome of purchase is cognitive dissonance which refers to a feeling of psychological tension or post-purchase doubt a consumer may experience after making a difficult purchase choice. Consumers often look to advertising for supportive information regarding the choice they have made. 6. Variations in Consumer Decision Making—consumers do not always engage in all five steps of the purchase decision process nor proceed in the sequence presented. There are three major variations of the consumer decision making process. †¢Routine response behavior—many purchase decisions for low-priced, frequently engaged in brief internal search and making the purchase. Marketers of products characterized by routine response behavior must get and/or maintain their brands in the consumers’ evoked set and encourage brand loyalty. Those not in the evoked set must encourage trial and brand switching.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Universal education and gender parity essay

Some 104-121 million kids of primary school age are non in school, with the worst deficits in Africa and South Asia. Girls are disproportionately affected, peculiarly in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia and the Pacific, where 83 % of all out-of-school misss live ( UNESCO, 2004 ) .Cosmopolitan Education and Gender Parity EssayIn this essay I will discourse whether I believe that Africa will make the planetary end of cosmopolitan primary instruction and gender para at all degrees of instruction by 2015. I will utilize my findings to separate whether I believe Africa will make the specified ends by 2015. First I will concentrate on whether Africa will make the planetary end of cosmopolitan primary instruction by 2015. Harmonizing to African Development Bank Group ( 2009 ) Most African states are on path to accomplish cosmopolitan primary registration by 2015, if current tendencies continue, nevertheless even though harmonizing to The United Nations ( 2010 ) registration in primary instruction has continued to lift and is making 89 per cent in the development universe the gait of advancement is still deficient to guarantee that, by 2015, all misss and boys finish a full class of primary schooling. The African Development Bank Group ( 2009 ) states that if actions are taken to better entree to primary instruction for kids from hapless families, for kids who live in rural countries, and for HIV orphans will decrease the job at manus. With all Inquisitions the African Development Bank Group ( 2009 ) states that Africa as a whole has an addition in the primary completion rates nevertheless The United Nations ( 2010 provinces that half of the sub-Saharan African states have at least one in four kids of primary-school left school in 2008 therefore although acquiring kids into school is a critical first measure one needs to maintain the kids go toing categories, this will so increase the chance that one will have the full benefits of instruction. Harmonizing to The United Nations ( 2010 ) Household information from 42 states show that rural kids are twice every bit likely to be out of school as kids populating in urban countries. The information besides show that the rural-urban spread is somewhat wider for misss than for male childs. But the biggest obstruction to instruction is poverty. Besides the rural-urban spread, there was an mean addition of 5.3 per centum in completion rates in 17 African states between 2005 and 2006 ( African Development Bank Group 2009 ) . The mean primary completion rate is low in states in struggle and in states emerging from struggle and therefore current tendencies show that the continent is improbable to accomplish the primary completion mark ( African Development Bank Group 2009 ) . Harmonizing to the United Nations ( 2010 ) in order to run into the end, states will besides necessitate to guarantee that there are adequate instructors and schoolrooms to run into the demand. Between now and 2015, the figure of new instructors needed in sub-Saharan Africa entirely equals the current instruction force in the part ( United Nations 2010 ) . Harmonizing to the United Nations ( 2010 ) many states educating misss is widely perceived as being of less value than educating male childs which now brings me to the whether Africa will make gender para at all degrees of instruction by 2015. Harmonizing to the African Development Bank Group ( 2009 ) the continent continues to do advancement toward gender equality and authorization of adult females, the African development Bank Group stated the misss ‘ primary school registration rate outstripped that of male childs between 2000 and 2006 nevertheless despite these additions, misss still account for 55 per centum of the out-of-school population in the part farther more it was found that In 2008, there were 96 misss for every 100 male childs enrolled in primary school ( United Nations 2010 ) . Harmonizing to the United Nations ( 2010 ) in Secondary Education 95 misss for every 100 male childs enrolled in secondary school. In 1999, the ratios were 91:100 and 88:100 for the two degrees of instruction, severally. Despite this advancement, gender para in primary and secondary education-a mark that was to be met by 2005-is still out of range for many developing parts ( United Nations 2010 ) , hence most African states have yet to accomplish gender para in secondary instruction, about four old ages after the mark day of the month of 2005. Merely 11 states have achieved this mark ( African Development Bank Group 2009 ) . Harmonizing to the African Development Bank Group ( 2009 ) even though topographic points such as Lesotho and Namibia had more misss enrolled in secondary schools than male childs it is extremely improbable that African states will make the mark of gender para in secondary instruction by 2015, if current tendencies continue, nevertheless 10 states have a gender p ara in secondary instruction. Harmonizing to the African Development Bank Group ( 2009 ) the advancement towards gender para in third instruction is besides slow and merely eight African states have achieved gender para in third instruction. In sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia, for illustration, merely 67 and 76 misss per 100 male childs, severally, are enrolled in third degrees of instruction ( United nations 2010 ) and therefore many African states have reported advancement in gender para in regard to adult literacy, in 2007 eight states reported the mark as achieved ( African Development Bank Group 2009 ) . The African Development Bank Group ( 2009 ) say that with the addition in adult female in third instruction work forces ‘s societal and economic places are threatened, hence immature work forces are withdrawing into traditional and spiritual establishments that shore up their places and authorization. This is ensuing in increasing force against adult females and on juncture, to spiritual and other cultural struggles in society ( African Development Bank Group 2009 ) . Consequently, in order to safeguard the promotion of adult females ‘s authorization, a set of policies should besides be introduced to guarantee that male educational and employment chances are non significantly eroded in the procedure ( African Development Bank Group 2009 ) . Harmonizing to the United Nations ( 2010 ) adult females do stand for a big portion of waged workers ; nevertheless it does non intend that they have secure, nice occupations. In fact, adult females are typically paid less and have les s unafraid employment than work forces. Therefore in decision I feel that Africa will non make the planetary end of cosmopolitan primary instruction and gender para at all degrees of instruction due to the ends holding a mark of guaranting that by 2015 kids everyplace male childs and misss likewise will be able to finish a full class of primary schooling and to extinguish gender disparity in primary and secondary instruction sooner by 2005 and in all degrees of instruction no subsequently than 2015 ( United Nations 2010 ) . Already harmonizing to the United Nations ( 2010 ) most African states have yet to accomplish gender para in secondary instruction, about four old ages after the mark day of the month of 2005 and that many scholars leave school before making their concluding twelvemonth in the primary instruction sector and many of them being misss. This consequences in less girl scholars making secondary and third instruction which causes so the gender issue within the secondary and third degrees of instruction. Therefore for Africa to make these ends by the allocated clip they need to get down taking drastic steps and concentrate on making schooling chances for the hapless and unless this occurs we will non make these ends.